by JP Sturmberg & L Hoemeke for ISSCSH As systems and complexity scientists interested in health, we’re trying to untangle health problems in their context—and now, like everyone else, trying to stay healthy while we’re work from home. We know that for decades to come, health systems, public health researchers, and many others will undoubtedly more…

Emergence is a hallmark of complex adaptive systems but is also one of those concepts that is difficult to conceptualise. Emergence challenges the much-enshrined notion of cause-and-effect relationships, the modus that underpins the reductionist mode of science. Reductionism is the question: can you, in principle, completely explain what happens at the higher levels in terms more…